Implementing next generation science practices in classrooms: Findings from TIMSS 2019


  • Saed Sabah The Hashemite University
  • Mutasem M. Akour
  • Hind Hammouri



Inquiry, Jordan, science teachers, NGSS scientific practices, Rasch


This study developed and validated the Science Practice Scale (SPS) and investigated the implementation of scientific teaching practices by Grade 8 science teachers in Jordan. The responses of 235 8th grade science teachers who participated in the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study [TIMSS] of 2019 were analysed using the Rasch measurement. We found significant evidence supporting the construct validity of the SPS scale. The results showed that the estimated difficulty level of implementing the practices varies from -1.26 logit (observing natural phenomena) to 2.27 logit (conducting fieldwork), indicating that the level of conducting field experiments was very low. The results of the t-test (t = 0.267, df = 222, p<0.05) indicated that no statistically significant differences existed between male and female science teachers in implementing scientific practices. The Ministry of Education of Jordan is encouraged to organise specific professional development programmes to promote science teachers’ implementation of these practices, especially with regards to organising fieldwork and giving their pupils opportunities to design and conduct experiments and present data. The current study provides recommendations for improving the TIMSS teacher questionnaire and introduces suggestions for further research.



Download data is not yet available.


Akour, M. M. (2022). Rasch rating scale analysis of the survey of attitudes toward statistics. EURASIA Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, 18(12), em2190.

Alshorman, S. M. (2021). The level of employment of secondary school science teachers in Jordan for science and engineering practices (SEP) of next generation science standards (NGSS) during their teaching. Journal of the Association of Arab Universities for Research in Higher Education, 41(3).

Balta, N., Dzhapashov, N., Salibasic, D., & Mesic, V. (2022). Development of the high school wave optics Test. Journal of Turkish Science Education, 19(1), 306-331.

Bond, T., & Fox, C. M. (2015). Applying the Rasch model: Fundamental measurement in the human sciences (3rd ed.). Routledge.

Boone, W. J., Staver, J. R., & Yale, M. S. (2013). Rasch analysis in the human sciences. Springer Science & Business Media.

Boone, W. J., Townsend, J. S., &Staver, J. (2011). Using Rasch theory to guide the practice of survey development and survey data analysis in science education and to inform science reform efforts: An exemplar utilizing STEBI self‐efficacy data. Science Education, 95(2), 258–280.

Chen, Y. C., & Terada, T. (2021). Development and validation of an observation‐based protocol to measure the eight scientific practices of the next generation science standards in K‐12 science classrooms. Journal of Research in Science Teaching.

Costa, S. L. R., &Broietti, F. C. D. (2021). Scientific Practices in Science Education Publications: An Analysis of Research Contexts. Science Education International, 32(4), 282-291.

Dalvi, T., Silva Mangiante, E., & Wendell, K. (2021). Identifying pre-service teachers’ conceptions about the NGSS practices using a Curriculum Critique and Revision (CCR) Task. Journal of Science Teacher Education, 32(2), 123-147.

Drew, S. V., & Thomas, J. (2018). Secondary science teachers’ implementation of CCSS and NGSS literacy practices: A survey study. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 31(2), 267–291.

Faize, F. A., Husain, W., &Nisar, F. (2017). A critical review of scientific argumentation in science education. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, 14(1), 475–483.

Harris, K., Sithole, A., &Kibirige, J. (2017). A Needs Assessment for the Adoption of Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) in K-12 Education in the United States. Journal of Education and Training Studies, 5(9), 54-62.

Hayes, K. N., Lee, C. S., DiStefano, R., O’Connor, D., & Seitz, J. C. (2016). Measuring science instructional practice: A survey tool for the age of NGSS. Journal of Science Teacher Education, 27(2), 137–164.

Jiang, F., &McComas, W. F. (2015). The effects of inquiry teaching on student science achievement and attitudes: Evidence from propensity score analysis of PISA data. International Journal of Science Education, 37(3), 554–576.

Kaçar, S., &Balım, A. G. (2021). Investigating the effects of argument-driven inquiry method in science course on students’ levels of conceptual understanding. Journal of Turkish Science Education, 18(4), 816-845.

Kang, E. J., Donovan, C., & McCarthy, M. J. (2018). Exploring elementary teachers’ pedagogical content knowledge and confidence in implementing the NGSS science and engineering practices. Journal of Science Teacher Education, 29(1), 9-29.

Kang, E. J., McCarthy, M. J., & Donovan, C. (2019). Elementary teachers’ enactment of the NGSS science and engineering practices. Journal of Science Teacher Education, 30(7), 788-814.

Kawasaki, J., & Sandoval, W. A. (2020). Examining teachers’ classroom strategies to understand their goals for student learning around the science practices in the Next Generation Science Standards. Journal of Science Teacher Education, 31(4), 384-400.

Lilly, S., McAlister, A. M., Fick, S. J., Chiu, J. L., & McElhaney, K. W. (2022). Elementary teachers' verbal supports of science and engineering practices in an NGSS‐aligned science, engineering, and computational thinking unit. Journal of Research in Science Teaching.

Linacre, J. M. (2002). What do infit and outfit, mean-square and standardized mean. Rasch Measurement Transactions, 16(2), 878.

Linacre, J. M. (2003). Rasch power analysis: Size vs. significance: Standardized chi-square fit statistic. Rasch Measurement Transactions, 17(1), 918.

Linacre, J. M. (2006). WINSTEPS Rasch measurement computer program. Chicago:

Malkawi, A. R., &Rababah, E. Q. (2018). Jordanian twelfth-grade science teachers’ self-reported usage of science and engineering practices in the next generation science standards. International Journal of Science Education, 40(9), 961–976.

Martin, M. O., Mullis, I. V. S., Foy, P., & Hooper, M. (2016). TIMSS 2015 International Results in Science. Retrieved from Boston College, TIMSS & PIRLS International Study Centre.

Martin, M. O., von Davier, M., & Mullis, I. V. (2020). Methods and Procedures: TIMSS 2019 Technical Report. International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement.

Mody, C. C. (2015). Scientific practice and science education. Science Education, 99(6), 1026–1032.

Mohamad, M. M., Sulaiman, N. L., Sern, L. C., &Salleh, K. M. (2015). Measuring the validity and reliability of research instruments. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 204, 164–171.

MohdDzin, N. H., & Lay, Y. F. (2021). Assessing the validity and reliability of science multiple choice test using RASCH dichotomous measurement model. Journal of Baltic Science Education, 20(6), 927–941.

Mullis, I. V. S., Martin, M. O., Kennedy, A., Trong, K., & Sainsbury, M. (2009). PIRLS 2021 Assessment Frameworks: International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement.

National Research Council. (1996). National science education standards. National Academies Press.

National Research Council. (2000). Inquiry and the national science education standards: A guide for teaching and learning. National Academies Press.

National Research Council. (2012). A framework for K-12 science education: Practices, crosscutting concepts, and core ideas. National Academies Press.

National Center for Curriculum Development. (2019). The general and specific frameworks for K-12 science standards and their performance indicators.

Nollmeyer, G. E., &Bangert, A. W. (2017). Measuring Elementary Teachers' Understanding of the NGSS Framework: An Instrument for Planning and Assessing Professional Development. Electronic Journal of Science Education, 21(8), 20-45.

Ornek, F. (2008). Models in science education: Applications of models in learning and teaching science. International Journal of Environmental and Science Education, 3(2), 35– 45.

Osborne, J. (2014). Teaching scientific practices: Meeting the challenge of change. Journal of Science Teacher Education, 25(2), 177–196.

Ping, I. L. L., Halim, L., & Osman, K. (2020). Explicit teaching of scientific argumentation as an approach in developing argumentation skills, science process skills and biology understanding. Journal of Baltic Science Education, 19(2), 276–288.

Planinic, M., Boone, W. J., Susac, A., &Ivanjek, L. (2019). Rasch analysis in physics education research: Why measurement matters. Physical Review Physics Education Research, 15(2), 020111.

Qablan, A. (2016). Teaching and learning about science practices: Insights and challenges in professional development. Teacher Development, 20(1), 76-91.

Qablan, A. (2018). Comparison of science and engineering concepts in next generation science standards with Jordan science standards. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, 14(6), 2693–2709.

Quigley, C., Marshall, J. C., & Deaton, C. (2011). Challenges to inquiry teaching and suggestions for how to meet them. Science Educator, 20(1), 55–61.

Ramakrisnan, P., Jaafar, A., &Yatim, N. F. B. M. (2013). Towards an understanding of user satisfaction measurement in online discussion site (ODS) design using Rasch analysis. International Journal of Education and Research, 1(6), 1–12.

Sabah, S., Hammouri, H., &Akour, M. (2013). Validation of a scale of attitudes toward science across countries using Rasch model: Findings from TIMSS. Journal of Baltic Science Education, 12(5), 692.

Samarapungavan A., Patrick H., &Mantzicopoulos P. (2011). What kindergarten students learn in inquiry-based science classrooms. Cognition and Instruction, 29, 416–470.

Sharif, M. S., Hanapi, Z., Nashir, I. M., Ghani, C., Kob, C., & Abdullah, A. S. (2019). Construct validity and reliability of manufacturing industry: A Rasch measurement model approaches for pilot study. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 9(3), 654–665.

Smith, J., &Nadelson, L. (2017). Finding alignment: The perceptions and integration of the Next Generation Science Standards practices by elementary teachers. School Science and Mathematics, 117(5), 194-203.

Soeharto, S. (2021). Development of a diagnostic assessment test to evaluate science misconceptions in terms of school grades: A Rasch Measurement Approach. Journal of Turkish Science Education, 18(3), 351-370.

Stephenson, N. S., Duffy, E. M., Day, E. L., Padilla, K., Herrington, D. G., Cooper, M. M., & Carmel, J. H. (2020). Development and validation of scientific practices assessment tasks for the general chemistry laboratory. Journal of Chemical Education, 97(4), 884-893.

Tuttle, N., Kaderavek, J. N., Molitor, S., Czerniak, C. M., Johnson-Whitt, E., Bloomquist, D., ... & Wilson, G. (2016). Investigating the impact of NGSS-aligned professional development on PreK-3 teachers’ science content knowledge and pedagogy. Journal of Science Teacher Education, 27, 717-745.







How to Cite

Sabah, S., Mutasem M. Akour, & Hind Hammouri. (2023). Implementing next generation science practices in classrooms: Findings from TIMSS 2019. Journal of Turkish Science Education, 20(2), 309-319.

Similar Articles

1-10 of 460

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.