Metacognitive Awareness of STEAM Education among Primary Stage Teachers in Jordan


  • Farida Bernardos Haddad
  • Ahmad A.S.Tabieh
  • Mohareb Alsmadi
  • Othman Mansour
  • Elham Al-Shalabi


Metacognitive Awareness, Metacognition, STEAM education, Primary Teachers


This study aimed to investigate the level of metacognitive awareness of STEAM education among primary stage teachers in Jordan. It also aimed to identify the impact of school type, experience, and specialization on the level of Metacognitive awareness. Via purposive sampling, 370 science, computer science, social science and humanities, and mathematics teachers were selected, who already know about the STEAM approach, from public and private schools in Amman and Madaba Governorates. The researcher developed a five-point Likert-type scale to measure metacognitive awareness among primary school teachers about the STEAM approach. The researcher verified the content validity by presenting the instrument to a group of experts in curricula and teaching methods to determine the extent of the clarity and comprehensiveness of the items. The researcher applied the questionnaire to a pilot of 30 from outside the sample to calculate the constructive validity and reliability. The results of the application showed constructive validity ranging between (.65 and .82). The researcher concluded that the level of metacognitive awareness among teachers with 3 years and more experience who work in the private sector is higher than those who work in the public sector. The results also showed no significant difference in the level attributed to the specialization variable. The researcher recommends that the Ministry of Education should prepare a successful education reform process in addition to adopting a unified reform plan with clear educational goals and outcomes.


Download data is not yet available.


Ali, M. S. Z., Siddiqui, G. K., & Zarar, N. (2021). Cooperative Learning: Effect on Prospective Teachers’ Metacognitive Skills Development at University Level. Global Educational Studies Review, VI, 6, 121-128.

Alsalhi, N (2022) Science Teachers’ Perceptions towards Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) Learning: A Case Study in Jordan.

Alzahrani, K. S. (2017). Metacognition and its role in mathematics learning: an exploration of the perceptions of a teacher and students in a secondary school. International electronic journal of mathematics education, 12(3), 521-537.

ElSayary.A (2021). Teaching and assessing creativity in STEAM education. ZU Scholars.

Balcikanli, C. (2017). Metacognitive Awareness Inventory for Teachers (MAIT). Electronic Journal of Research in Education Psychology, 9(25), 1309.

Beach, D., Bagley, C., Eriksson, A., & Player-Koro, C. (2014). Changing teacher education in Sweden: Using meta-ethnographic analysis to understand and describe policymaking and educational changes. Teaching and Teacher Education, 44, 160–167.

Bedar, & Al-Shboul, M. A. (2020). The Effect of Using STEAM Approach on Motivation towards Learning among High School Students in Jordan. International Education Studies, 13(9), 48-57.

Boice, K. L., Jackson, J. R., Alemdar, M., Rao, A. E., Grossman, S., & Usselman, M. (2021). Supporting Teachers on Their STEAM Journey: A Collaborative STEAM Teacher Training Program. Education Sciences, 11(3), 105.

Branigan, H. (2019). Exploring Metacognition in Primary School Classrooms.

Bryk, A., & Schneider, B. (2002). Trust in schools: A core resource for improvement. Russell Sage Foundation.

Bush, S. B., Cook, K. L., Edelen, D., & Richard, C. (2020). Elementary Students’ STEAM Perceptions: Extending Frames of Reference through Transformative Learning Experiences. Elementary School Journal, 120(4), 692–714.

Choy, C (2020) A Metacognitive Knowledge, Metacognitive Experience and its Effects on Learning Outcomes for Stem and non STEM Malaysian Students.

Chu, H. E., Martin, S. N., & Park, J. (2019). A theoretical framework for developing an intercultural STEAM program for Australian and Korean students to enhance science teaching and learning. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 17(7), 1251-1266.

Conradty, C., & Bogner, F. X. (2020). STEAM teaching professional development works effects on students’ creativity and motivation. Smart Learning Environments, 7(1).

Demirel, M., Özmat, D., & Elgün, Imgehan Özkan. (2016). Primary School Teachers’ Perceptions about Character Education. Educational Research and Reviews, 11(17), 1622–1633.

Dolgopolovas, V., & Dagienė, V. (2021). Computational thinking: Enhancing STEAM and engineering education, from theory to practice. Computer Applications in Engineering Education, 29(1), 5–11.

Drigas, A., & Mitsea, E. (2021). 8 Pillars X 8 Layers Model of Metacognition: Educational Strategies, Exercises &Trainings. International Journal of Online & Biomedical Engineering, 17(8).

Engel, B. (n.d.). RESEARCH REPORT Teacher Metacognition: Teacher as Curriculum Maker with Metacognition at the Centre of the Classroom. BU Journal of Graduate Studies in Education, 13(2), 2021. Retrieved November 8, 2021, from

Garcia, E. (2016). The need to address non-cognitive skills in the education policy agenda. In Non-cognitive skills and factors in educational attainment (pp. 31-64). Brill Sense.

Heyes, C., Bang, D., Shea, N., Frith, C. D., & Fleming, S. M. (2020). Knowing Ourselves Together: The Cultural Origins of Metacognition. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 24(5), 349–362.

Hom, E. J. (2014, February 11). What is STEM Education?; Live Science.

Hsiao, P.-W., & Su, C.-H. (2021). A Study on the Impact of STEAM Education for Sustainable Development Courses and Its Effects on Student Motivation and Learning. Sustainability, 13(7).

Hughes, A. J., & Partida, E. (2020). Promoting Pre-service STEM Education Teachers’ Metacognitive Awareness: Professional Development Designed to Improve Teacher Metacognitive Awareness. Journal of Technology Education, 32(1), 5–20.

İlhami Bulut. (2018, December). The Levels of Classroom and Pre-school Teachers’ Metacognitive Awareness. ResearchGate; Horizon Research Publishing Co., Ltd.’_Metacognitive_Awareness

Jaleel, S., & P., P. (2016). A Study on the Metacognitive Awareness of Secondary School Students. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 4(1), 165–172.

Jia, X., Li, W., & Cao, L. (2019). The Role of Metacognitive Components in Creative Thinking. Frontiers in Psychology, 10.

Kandemir, M. A., & Karadeniz, I. (2021). Pre-Service Teachers’ Cognitive and Metacognitive Processes in Integrated STEM Modeling Activity. Journal of Education in Science, Environment and Health, 7(2), 104-127.

Kelley, T. R., & Knowles, J. G. (2016). A conceptual framework for integrated STEM education. International Journal of STEM Education, 3(1).

Kohen, Z., & Kramarski, B. (2018). Promoting mathematics teachers’ pedagogical metacognition: A theoretical-practical model and case study. In Cognition, metacognition, and culture in STEM education (pp. 279-305). Springer, Cham.

Kurup, P. M., Li, X., Powell, G., & Brown, M. (2019). Building future primary teachers’ capacity in STEM: based on a platform of beliefs, understandings, and intentions. International Journal of STEM Education, 6(1).

Kustiana, Suratno, & Wahyuni, D. (2020). The analysis of metacognitive skills and creative thinking skills in STEM education at senior high school for biotechnology. Journal Physics: Conference Series, 1465, 012045.

literature review. International Journal of STEM Education,

Margot, K. C., & Kettler, T. (2019). Teachers’ perception of STEM integration and education: a systematic

Memnun, D. S., & Akkaya, R. (2009). The levels of metacognitive awareness of primary teacher trainees. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 1(1), 1919-1923.

Metacognition Self-Directed Project. (2017). Dan Simonds Professional Portfolio.

Milara, I. S., Pitkänen, K., Laru, J., Iwata, M., Orduña, M. C., & Riekki, J. (2020). STEAM in Oulu: Scaffolding the development of a Community of Practice for local educators around STEAM and digital fabrication. International Journal of Child-Computer Interaction, 26, 100197.

Morphew, Jason (2021): . "Changes in metacognitive monitoring accuracy in an introductory physics course." Metacognition and Learning 16, no. 1 :89-111.

Mulyani, d. F., & Arif, s. (2021). Implementation of project-based learning (pjbl) based on science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (stem) to improve metacognitive thinking ability. Insecta: integrative science education and teaching activity journal, 2(1), 117-129.

Mutambuki, J. M., Mwavita, M., Muteti, C. Z., Jacob, B. I., & Mohanty, S. (2020). Metacognition concepts than active learning alone. Journal of Chemical Education, 97(7), 1832-1840.

Network Support. (2021). Why are Cognitive Skills in the Classroom so Important?

O’Hara, S., Pritchard, R., & Pitta, D. (2019). Teaching with and for Metacognition in Disciplinary Discussions. Metacognition in Learning.

Owen, D., & Vista, A. (2017, November 15). Strategies for teaching metacognition in classrooms. Brookings; Brookings.

Park, D. Y., and Prommas, C. (2017). Development of Thai Teachers’ Pedagogical Reasoning by Utilizing Metacognitive Reflections in STEM Professional Development. Journal of Education and Human Development, 6(3), 137-152.

Pears, A., Barendsen, E., Dagienė, V., Dolgopolovas, V., & Jasutė, E. (2019). Holistic STEAM Education through Computational Thinking: A Perspective on Training Future Teachers. Informatics in Schools. New Ideas in School Informatics, 41–52.

Price-Mitchell, M. (2015, April 7). Metacognition: Nurturing Self-Awareness in the Classroom. Edutopia; George Lucas Educational Foundation.

Quigley, C., Herro, D., & Jamil, F. M. (2017, February). Developing a Conceptual Model of STEAM Teaching Practices: Developing a Conceptual Model. ResearchGate Wiley.

Resources for English Language Learners and Teachers | Pearson English. (2021, April 8). How to integrate STEAM in English language classrooms. Resources for English Language Learners and Teachers | Pearson English.

Resources for English Language Learners and Teachers, Pearson English, 2021.

Riley, S. (2021, October 14). What is STEAM Education? The Institute for Arts Integration and STEAM.

Rovers, S. F. E., Clarebout, G., Savelberg, H. H. C. M., de Bruin, A. B. H., & van Merriënboer, J. J. G. (2019). Granularity matters: comparing different ways of measuring self-regulated learning. Metacognition and Learning, 14(1), 1–19.

Rowsome, P., Lane, D., & Gordon, S. (2014, June). Capturing Evidence of Metacognitive Awareness of Pre-service STEM Educators Using ‘Codifying’of Thinking Through e-Portfolios (Research-to-Practice). In 2014 ASEE Annual Conference & Exposition (pp. 24-255).

Saleem, A. (2021). Methods of resource room management for teachers of learning disabilities in English language in light of some variables. Science and Education, 2(9).

Schraw, G., & Dennison, R. S. (1994). Assessing metacognitive awareness. Contemporary educational psychology, 19(4), 460-475.

Sedova, K., Sedlacek, M., & Svaricek, R. (2016). Teacher professional development as a means of transforming student classroom talk. Teaching and Teacher Education, 57, 14–25.

Sevian, H., Dori, Y. J., & Parchmann, I. (2018). How does STEM context-based learning work: What we know and what we still do not know. International Journal of Science Education, 40(10), 1095-1107.

Sharipova, I. A. "WHY STEAM IS SO IMPORTANT TO 21ST CENTURY EDUCATION." Herald pedagogiki. Nauka i Praktyka 2, no. 2 (2022).

STEM | Description, Development, & Facts | Britannica. (2021). In Encyclopedia Britannica.

Tarricone, P. (2011). The Taxonomy of Metacognition. Psychology Press.

Taylor, P. (n.d.). Why is a STEAM curriculum perspective crucial to the 21st century? Retrieved November 27, 2021, from

Uluçınar, U., & Aypay, A. (2016). A Model of Decision-Making Based on Critical Thinking. TED EĞİTİM ve BİLİM, 41(185).

Vásquez, C., Piñeiro, J. L., & García-Alonso, I. (2022). What Challenges Does the 21st Century Impose on the Knowledge of Primary School Teachers Who Teach Mathematics? An Analysis from a Latin American Perspective. Mathematics, 10(3), 391.

What is STEAM Education? | Rethink Together. (2020, October 3). Rethink Together.

Yakman, G. (2008, February 20). STEAM Education: an overview of creating a model of integrative education. Research Gate; unknown.